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Drugs and HIV and hepatites treatments.

Drugs and HIV and hepatites treatments.

Drugs interfere with medical treatments. Using unlawful drugs and alcohol is hardly compatible with the intake of powerful medicine such as anti-retroviral drugs, interferons, anxiolytics and other psychotropic drugs.
On the one hand, drugs interfere with the efficiency of treatments. On the other hand, treatments can also increase the effects and the risks of drugs.

What’s more, just like some medications, drugs affect the condition of several vital organs. Combining medicine intake with drug use weakens the liver. It’s also the case for other organs like the heart, the pancreas, kidneys and lungs.

In France, one in four HIV-positive people is co-infected with C-hepatitis virus and 10-15% with B-hepatitis virus. Early testing and early treatment allow for a better care.

HIV is transmitted through sharing of unsterile syringes and through unprotected sexual activity. The virus may also be transmitted from mother to child during birth and the weeks before and after—the perinatal period. New data suggest that sexual transmission of HIV is also an important mode among IDUs: Male IDUs who have sex with men and female IDUs who trade sex for money are more likely to become HIV-infected than IDUs who do not engage in those behaviors ().

There is significant overlap between modes of transmission and hence between risk factors for HIV and hepatitis A, B, and C. Because HIV and hepatitis are transmitted by many of the same routes, risk-reduction efforts aimed at HIV transmission have also reduced the spread of hepatitis. However, hepatitis can be transmitted in more ways than HIV. Hepatitis A and B may be transmitted to household members and other close contacts who are not sexual partners.

Hepatitis A is spread through unsanitary living conditions, inadequate personal hygiene, and direct or indirect anal-oral contact, including sexual behaviors. Transmission of the virus in feces predominates, but hepatitis A is also transmitted via contact with contaminated drug injection equipment. Use of contaminated water to prepare drugs and contamination of drugs hidden in the rectum may play a role. Hepatitis A causes acute, not chronic, inflammation of the liver.

Hepatitis B virus is found in the semen, blood, and saliva of infected persons and is usually spread by contaminated syringes and unprotected sexual contact. From 1 to 10 percent of patients develop chronic liver inflammation, which may progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Hepatitis C virus is transmitted through contaminated blood (for example, during syringe sharing) and through needle-stick injuries and unprotected sexual contact. In addition, recent research shows hepatitis C transmission associated with the sharing of unsterile injection equipment other than syringes (cookers, filtration cotton, rinse water) (). Hepatitis C appears to spread more rapidly among IDUs than does HIV, because of higher prevalence of hepatitis C among injection partners and a higher infectivity of hepatitis C once it gets into the bloodstream (). From 10 to 60 percent of individuals infected with hepatitis C virus develop some form of chronic liver inflammation.

Drug abuse treatment and interventions such as syringe exchange and outreach, which have focused on reducing the use of contaminated syringes, have been associated with lower incidence of HIV infection but have had less consistent or no effects on new cases of hepatitis C. To affect the transmission of hepatitis C, risk-reduction interventions are needed that address not only syringe use, but also sexual behaviors and the use of injection paraphernalia in addition to syringes (such as filtration cottons, cookers, and rinse water).